Diet

Framework: Three Types of Restriction (Peter Attia)

  1. What you eat: dietary restriction (DR).
    • Sketch out macro (protein, carbs, fats) and micro (vitamins) that work for you. 
    • Add supplements if/when needed.
    • Figure out what to avoid.
  2. How much you eat: caloric restriction (CR).
    • Generally: don’t overeat – portion control.
    • Specifically: subject to goals (health, training, etc.)
    • Some rules of thumb to consider.
  3. When you eat: time restriction (TR).
    • Routine: three meals a day (late breakfast, normal lunch, early dinner).
    • Periodic: long fasts (3-5 days water-only).

What you eat: macro-nutrients. 

  • Technical macro-nutrients approach.  (“FoundMyFitness — Peter Attia“)
    • Proteins: up to level needed to maintain muscle mass.
    • Carbs: down to level that produces acceptable insulin, avoids glucose spikes.
    • Fat to complete and make up the amount needed to maintain proper BMR.
  • Practical approach :
    • Proteins: lean meats and fatty fish.
    • Carbs: moderation.
    • Fats: moderate PUFAs, for some: limit saturated fats.
  • Proteins:
    • Mostly lean meat cuts and fatty fish.
    • Fatty fish: salmon, mackerel, etc. (B vitamins, creatine, omega-3).
    • Lean meats: chicken breast, pork chop, skirt steak (B vitamins, creatine).
    • Shellfish: clams, oysters, mussels (B12).
    • Liverwurst (B12).
    • Shrimp (B4).
  • Vegetables:
    • Mostly green leafy vegetables.
    • Broccoli, spinach, asparagus, kale, lettuce, cauliflower (B vitamins).
    • Sprouts (B vitamins, omega-3).
    • Beet root (betaine).
    • Mushrooms (B2).
    • Shiitake mushrooms (B5).
  • Carbs:
    • Moderation.
  • Fruits:
    • Avocado (MUFA).
  • Other:
    • Yoghurt (B2).
    • Eggs (B4).
    • Flax seed, chia seed (omega-3).
    • Bone broth (methylation).
    • Royal Jelly (BH4, methylation).
    • Olive oil (Omega-3).
    • Natto, aged cheese ( Spermidine, “FoundMyFitness — Guido Kroemer“)

What you eat: micro-nutrients

  • B Vitamins:
    • Important for methylation cycle: (“Methylation“)
      • B2 (riboflavin).
      • B4 (choline, betaine):
        • Choline: liver, egg yolk, spinach, salmon, cod, broccoli, cauliflower.
        • Betaine: quinoa, spinach, beets.
      • B9 (folate):
        • Dark leafy greens, liver, avocado, asparagus, broccoli, and lentils.
      • B12:
        • Liver, eggs, nuts, beans.
      • B6 (pyridoxine).

What to eat: avoid or lower

  • PUFA Omega-6 (“Fatty Acids“).
    • In excess may cause oxidative stress.
    • Processed food in general, chips, fast food, peanut butter, cured or corn-fed meats, cookies, cake, salad dressing, certain nuts (almonds if too many).
  • Saturated Fatty Acids (“Fatty Acids“).
    • May increase LDL (for some).
    • Butter, cheese, fatty meats (beef, lamb, pork), sausages.
  • Alcohol.
    • Oxidative stress.
  • Sugar.
    • May increase LDL.
    • Granola, fruit juice, candy, chocolate milk, etc.

What you eat: supplements to consider

  • General brands:
  • Sulforaphane: (“FoundMyFitness — Jed Fahey“) (“Sulforaphane“)
    • To lower inflammation and oxidative stress
    • Brand: Thorne (GRN only) or Avmacol (GRN + MYR).
  • Creatine: (“The Drive with Peter Attia — Chris Masterjohn“)
    • To reduce methylation demands.
    • Brand: Thorne.
  • B-Complex: (“Methylation“)
    • To promote more efficient methylation.
    • Understand if you have methylation pathway issues.
    • Do you need to lower homocysteine (better conversion and/or breakdown).
    • Depending on genetic profile, pick appropriate B vitamin or complex.
    • Brand: Thorne.
  • Glycine: (“The Drive with Peter Attia — Chris Masterjohn“)
    • May be low due if overly methylated and peed out (in homocysteine breakdown).
    • Helps with sleep.
    • Brand: [No need for supplementing].
  • Omega-3: (“Fatty Acids“)
    • EPA and DHA, improve Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio.
    • Brand: Nordic Naturals
  • GLA / Borage oil: (“Fatty Acids“)
    • Preferred form of Omega-6 (anti-inflammatory).
    • In combination with Omega-3 (to avoid pro inflammatory impact).
    • Brand: Jarrow.
  • NAD+:  (“The Drive with Peter Attia — Chris Masterjohn“)
    • Promote DNA repair (activate sirtuins).
    • In combination with a methyl donor (choline, betaine, TMG).
    • Impact, side and signaling effects unclear.
    • NR supplement
    • Brand: Tru Niagen discussed.

How much to eat.

  • Subject to your goals.
    • Health, weight gain or loss, endurance, strength, etc.
  • Some rules of thumb to consider or play around with.
    • Proteins: 1 gram of protein per 1 pound of body weight.
    • Vegetables: “eight fists”.

When to eat.

  • Routine:
    • Time restricted feeding most interesting and practical (“FoundMyFitness — Satchin Panda“)
      • Squeeze three meals into relatively short time period.
      • Late breakfast, normal lunch, early dinner.
      • Align with circadian rhythm.
      • Provide fuel in the morning when needed.
      • Reduce fuel intake at night when not needed.
      • More or less, business as usual…
    • Most routine intermittent protocols may be effective for weight control.
      • Skipping breakfast, 5:2 days, etc.
      • Unclear from research if there are any other material benefits (autophagy, ketosis, etc.) beyond weight loss.
  • Periodic:
    • Longer fasts. (“Fasting“)
      • 3-5 days water-only fast.
      • Once a year.
    • Pursue potential benefits of material fasting and re-feeding cycling program.
      • Should trigger benefits of ketosis and potentially autophagy.

Ketogenic diet (“The Drive with Peter Attia – Rhonda Patrick“)

  • May not be for everyone.
    • Saturated fat may increase LDL cholesterol (for some people).
    • PUFAs may increase inflammation.
    • Difficult to make up fat requirement with MUFA only.

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